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Graduate Skills

Introduction

Welcome to Graduate Skills one of the series of Futures workbooks, which help students choose and prepare for their careers.  Like the other workbooks in the series you can dip in and out doing the exercises which are most relevant to you. You might want to print some of the exercises and include them in your personal development plan or e-portfolio.

The aim of this workbook is to introduce you to the concept of graduate job skills and enterprise, looking at which career path you decides to follow. It’s not just about starting a business; enterprise skills or attributes are as useful in employment as they are in self employment.

Index

What is enterprise?

"Enterprise is purposeful active behaviour, which can take place in any number of contexts, business being only one. Enterprise is making things happen, having ideas, and doing something about them, taking advantage of opportunities to bring about change"
(SEC 2000 Scottish Getintoenterprise programme)
Enterprise is often referred to as the act of starting and developing a business. However the skill of being able to spot new opportunities, having a “can do” attitude and the determination to take ideas forward to success not only applies to budding entrepreneurs but can be a vital part of your own personal development and ability to progress in any career.

Why do I need to think about this?

It’s all about employability!

“to be employed is to be at risk, to be employable is to be secure”
(Dr P Hawkins)

Enterprising graduates will tend to have more career success as their skills and adaptable attitude can be transferable to any employment situation. Graduate employers see enterprise skills as essential when recruiting and need to see evidence of students flexing their entrepreneurial muscles through work experience, participation in projects, sports, competitions, volunteering and so on.

Whether you plan to get a job, freelance, travel or set up your own business, you can use this workbook to help you assess your job skills now and learn how to develop those skills to take you to where you want to be.

How to tackle this workbook

Throughout this workbook, we examine eight key “enterprise skills” and for each skill we provide examples, definitions, advice and practical ways to help you develop these skills over a period of time.

Are you enterprising enough?

 Enterprise is a state of mind, or an attitude to life. You don’t stop being enterprising when you are at play, at home, at school or work”

Source: Enterprise Insight

How well do you know yourself, your behaviour or your motivation? Are you enterprising? Are you entrepreneurial?  Many graduate employers now look for enterprise skills in their new recruits, for example graduate recruiter 3M quote..

We look to bring innovative products to the market that succeed. To do this we need out of the ordinary thinking, challenges to the status quo and calculated risk taking – all characteristics of entrepreneurs
Dr P A Kennedy, 3M UK Ltd

Equally the skills, behaviour and drive of the individual responsible for starting and running a new venture has a major impact on its level of success.

It seems logical therefore to do a spot of naval gazing and assess whether we are already enterprising and identify any gaps where we can work on developing and nurturing our employability and/or entrepreneurial attributes.

Have a look at this basic entrepreneurial test on the following page, which consists of 25 statements in total.

For each of the statements in the test, select the number on the scale that most closely describes your personal feelings. Remember, there is no right or wrong answer, so be as honest as you can.

Try to use the full range of the scale. If you always answer a "2" you will not get the maximum benefit from this test.

How true are these statements of you? Scale: 1 = not at all true, 2 = sometimes true, 3 = mostly true, 4 = very true.

You just need to remember that this is simply a tool. It is fun to take and fun to interpret, but you should keep it in perspective. 

 

 I'm persistent. I am persistent. 

1

2

3

4

 I believe my success will be dependant on me. 

1

2

3

4

When there's something I want, I keep my goal clearly in mind. 

1

2

3

4

 I examine mistakes and I learn from them. 

1

2

3

4

 I keep New Year's resolutions.

1

2

3

4

 I have a strong personal need to succeed. 

1

2

3

4

 I have new and different ideas. 

1

2

3

4

 I am adaptable. 

1

2

3

4

 I always give the best of myself. 

1

2

3

4

 I am intuitive. 

1

2

3

4

If something can't be done, I find a way. 

1

2

3

4

I see problems as challenges. 

1

2

3

4

I take chances. 

1

2

3

4

I'll gamble on a good idea even if it isn't a sure thing. 

1

2

3

4

To learn something new, I explore unfamiliar subjects. 

1

2

3

4

I can recover from emotional setbacks. 

1

2

3

4

I feel sure of myself.

1

2

3

4

I'm a positive person.

1

2

3

4

I experiment with new ways to do things.

1

2

3

4

I'm willing to undergo sacrifices to gain possible long term rewards. 

1

2

3

4

I usually do things my own way. 

1

2

3

4

I tend to rebel against authority. 

1

2

3

4

I often enjoy being alone. 

1

2

3

4

I like to be in control. 

1

2

3

4

I enjoy meeting new people and networking.

1

2

3

4

Column Total:

 

 

 

 

Total Score:

 

 

 

 


If you scored over 75: ENTREPRENEURIAL

You are a success already! Your powers of creativity and imagination will ensure that you go through business (and life) without a care, making a roaring success out of everything you do. You want to be in control and are prepared to cope with anything that stands in your way. Good luck and don’t forget to keep on learning!

If you scored between 59 and 75: ENTERPRISING

You are well on your way to developing a true entrepreneurial mindset and will easily be able to adapt your skills and attributes to any employment context. You demonstrate a positive way of thinking and would prove an asset to any organisation large or small. To become a successful business owner you may need to consider how you might handle insecurity and risk.

If you scored between 47 and 59: EMPLOYABLE

You certainly show signs of being able to identify your own skills and have many that would be valuable to employers. You have potential to run your own business but need to push yourself if you want to demonstrate entrepreneurial capability. You may want to identify and improve your skills in areas where you lack confidence.

If you scored less than 47: UNSATISFACTORY

Self-employment is probably not for you. You will probably be happier and more successful working for someone else and being told what to do. However even working for someone else means you need to demonstrate more of the above attributes. Work on becoming more self aware and reflect on the skills you need to become more employable and more enterprising and take action to develop them.

There are alternative entrepreneurial self-assessment tests on-line at:

http://mvp.cfee.org/en/selfassesscharacter.html
www.liraz.com/webquiz.htm
www.potentielentrepreneur.ca/client/questionnairenewsection1en.asp

Sharpen your enterprise skills

We feel that there are eight key skills that can be practiced to demonstrate and/or enhance your enterprising behaviors and attributes. The following are the enterprise skills that this workbook aims to help you put into practice.

 

Entrepreneurial Skill

Description

To work on this skill turn to page

1

Opportunity Seeking  

Opportunity seeking and grasping. Action orientation. Preference of learning by doing.

9

2

Initiative   

Taking initiatives to make things happen. Achievement of ambition.

12

3

Creativity

Creative problem solving. Putting things together creatively.

15

4

Self confidence

Managing autonomously. Taking responsibility for and ownership of things. Self confidence and self belief
High internal locus of control. Holistically Managing business/projects/situations. Strategic thinking

18

5

Perseverance

Seeing things through. Hardworking. Determination.

21

6

Networking  

Networking effectively.

 

24

7

Judgment  

Using judgment to take calculated risks. Intuitive decision making under uncertainty.

27

8

Selling

Persuading, Negotiation, Proposing.

 

30

STAR

Having looked at the skills on the previous page, can you identify those skills you would like to develop?

One way of identifying which of those skills you need to develop and work on is by trying to evidence each skill in a STAR format.

Imagine you were in an interview and your prospective employer asks you to give an example of a time when you have displayed this skill. What example could you give?

Think about your experiences in university, school, work, social or any setting where you have been able to demonstrate this skill.

 

Situation

  Describe the situation you were in. What was the specific event or set of circumstances in which you found yourself?

Task

  Describe the task you needed or wanted to accomplish. What was your strategic goal or mission, what did you want to achieve?

Action

  Describe the action(s) you took and keep the focus on you and your contribution even if it was a team activity.

Result

  What happened? What were the outcomes – positive and negative? What did you learn?

As an example look at the following extract from Duncan Bannatyne’s autobiography “Anyone can do it: My story” published by Orion Books 2006.

Skill One: Opportunity Seeking

Opportunity Seeking

An example….

 

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Situation
I noticed that most of the kids at the high school had bikes and, as the only kid without one, I felt incredibly left out. I had been asking my dad almost all of my life for a bike but his answer was always the same – we were still poor – so I decided that if he couldn’t buy me a bike then I’d have to buy one myself. I knew a couple of kids at school had paper rounds, so I thought I’d get one and save up.

The local paper shop was known as Jenny’s newsagents, after its owner, I went in and asked for a paper round but Jenny looked down her nose at me and said, “there’s none available” I didn’t believe her and instinctively knew that she thought I was a scruffy urchin who couldn’t be trusted. I also knew there were people in Clydebank who wanted a paper delivered because my mum was one of them.

Task
So I told Jenny, “My mother wants a paper delivered but no one delivers in our street.”
“Well you can’t create a paper round for just one house” she replied, “How many houses do you need?” I asked, Jenny looked me up and down, and thought for a second about a number that would put me off. “One hundred” she said. And that was it. I made my mind up that I was going to find a hundred households that wanted a paper delivery. From that moment on I was a small boy on a mission to buy his first bike and I rushed home to get a pencil and paper.

Action
I wrote my mums name at the top of the list and then started knocking on doors, asking if anyone wanted a paper delivery. I started with the neighbours who all knew me, and when they said yes I grew in confidence and carried on knocking on doors until the evening. I ended up in streets I didn’t really know, cold calling complete strangers, not that I knew it was called cold-calling in those days. I had to knock on about 150 doors to get my 100 names, but by the time it was getting dark I had them.

Result
As soon as I woke up the next morning I went straight back to Jenny and asked again for the paper round. This time she had no option but to say yes. It was my first taste of entrepreneurialism, and looking back, I can see that it was also my first mistake in business: I now realize that my list of names was very valuable to Jenny and I should have sold it to her rather than giving it away. Still we live and learn.

 

Having an open mind. Exploring everywhere…all the time. Action orientation. Questioning.

An enterprising person is one who comes across a pile of scrap metal and sees the making of a wonderful sculpture. An enterprising person is one who drives through an old decrepit part of town and sees a new housing development. An enterprising person is one who sees opportunity in all areas of life”

Creating Opportunity by Jim Rohn

There are opportunities everywhere; all you need to do is get into the habit of looking for them. As you go through your daily routines – bus, train, work, university, gym, pub, shops etc – think a little deeper about what is around you. Think about the products and services you and your friends and family encounter…

Ways to practice…

Practice these opportunity spotting skills constantly for a set period of time. Make some notes as you go along to remind yourself when you have practiced spotting opportunities, regardless of whether you think you have found a new opportunity or not.

At the end of this time, write up your experiences in the STAR format (Situation, Task, Action, Result).

Skill: Opportunity Spotting

 Situation
Describe the situation you were in. What was the specific event or set of circumstances in which you found yourself?

 

Task
Describe the task you needed or wanted to accomplish. What was your strategic goal or mission, what did you want to achieve?

 

 Action
Describe the action(s) you took and keep the focus on you and your contribution even if it was a team activity.

 

 Result
What happened? What were the outcomes – positive and negative? What did you learn?

 

Skill Two: Initiative


Initiative

Taking the lead to make things happen. Achievement of ambition.

pic

You can use your initiative in any situation and it can be defined in a variety of ways such as: “a beginning or introductory step” or “readiness to embark on a new venture”.
(www.dictionary.com)

Have a look at the following example.

Situation

Mary was interested in research right from her undergraduate diploma but found her work as a nurse and later, after retraining, as a midwife did not provide many opportunities for research. However she saw the need for alternative treatments and interventions for new mothers.

Task

Mary needed to work on her own initiative to find alternative ways of pursuing research, whilst continuing her current job.

Action

Mary found a series of funders, including the NHS Executive Research Fellowship Scheme, and by the Smith and Nephew Nursing Foundation Trust. Mary adds: 'It's not easy looking for funding; you've got to believe in yourself and your ideas. You might have some doors close but you just find one that will open.'  Mary also needed to persuade her managers that a short term secondment was practical

Result

Mary’s research has been fruitful in changing practices and in developing new treatments/interventions. One of her ideas: a 'Maternity Cooling Gel Pad', used to alleviate perineal trauma associated with stitches after childbirth, is now a commercial product known as the 'femepad' and is available for women from most high street chemists, Mothercare and the National Childbirth Trust.

 Ways to Practice

Think of some occasions when you have shown initiative. These may be in university, work or at home and may be times where you have gone above and beyond what was expected of you.

Think about situations you have been in that have prompted you into action or given you an idea that you have implemented. For example someone working part time in a bar may show initiative by suggesting a new process that means customers are served more quickly.

In a job interview situation, employers will often ask you to describe a situation where you have used your initiative and what the outcome of that situation was.

For a set period of time make some notes as to remind yourself when you have shown initiative, regardless of whether you think the outcome was positive or negative. At the end of this time, write up your best experience in the STAR format (Situation, Task, Action, Result).

                                                                            

Skill Two:  Initiative

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Situation
Describe the situation you were in. What was the specific event or set of circumstances in which you found yourself?

 

Task
Describe the task you needed or wanted to accomplish. What was your strategic goal or mission, what did you want to achieve?

 

Action
Describe the action(s) you took and keep the focus on you and your contribution even if it was a team activity.

 

Result
What happened? What were the outcomes – positive and negative? What did you learn?

 

Skill Three:  Creativity

Skill Three:  Creativity

Creative problem solving.

Putting things together in a new way.

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Creativity is the ability to do old things in a new or different way, or to see new solutions to problems. The more creative you are, the more good ideas you generate and good ideas are vital for business success.

Creativity Myths…

Lessons from Creativity research…

Ways to practice and develop your creativity

 

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Example of a mind map

Have a go at practicing some of these ideas for a set period of time. Make some notes as you go along to remind yourself when you have been creative, regardless of whether you think this creativity will turn out to be useful in the future. Think about projects where you have worked differently to improve something. Bear in mind that this skill is about more than having physical creativity - it’s about thinking of how things can be done differently. You can demonstrate this by giving examples of times when you came up with new initiatives, which challenged existing practices.

At the end of this time, write up your experiences in the STAR format (Situation, Task, Action, Result).


Skill Three: Creativity

Situation
Describe the situation you were in. What was the specific event or set of circumstances in which you found yourself?

 

Task
Describe the task you needed or wanted to accomplish. What was your strategic goal or mission, what did you want to achieve?

 

Action
Describe the action(s) you took and keep the focus on you and your contribution even if it was a team activity.

 

Result
What happened? What were the outcomes – positive and negative? What did you learn?

 

Skill Four:  Self confidence

Skill Four:  Self confidence

Managing autonomously.

Taking responsibility for and ownership of things.

Self belief.

High internal locus of control.

Holistically managing business/projects/situations.

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Self confidence is a key entrepreneurial skill for success. It is about the belief in yourself and your own abilities and that belief will enable you to make decisions, explore new ventures and take calculated risks.

Ways to practice

Building self confidence at any stage in your life is based on success and positive experiences. Here are some ideas to develop your self esteem over time:

Practice some of the methods above, or some of your own, for a set period of time. Make some notes as you go along to remind yourself of the situations, regardless of whether you think the outcome was positive or negative. At the end of this time, write up your experiences in the STAR format (Situation, Task, Action, Result).

Skill Four: Self Confidence

Situation
Describe the situation you were in. What was the specific event or set of circumstances in which you found yourself?

 

Task
Describe the task you needed or wanted to accomplish. What was your strategic goal or mission, what did you want to achieve?

 

Action
Describe the action(s) you took and keep the focus on you and your contribution even if it was a team activity.

 

Result
What happened? What were the outcomes – positive and negative? What did you learn?

 

Skill Five: Perseverance

Skill Five: Perseverance

Seeing things through.

Hardwork.

Determination.

A project champion.

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Perseverance…

Don't be afraid to give your best to what seemingly are small jobs.  Every time you conquer one it makes you that much stronger.  If you do the little jobs well, the big ones will tend to take care of themselves.”  ~ Dale Carnegie

The power of perseverance should never be underestimated. Many people have achieved great success in the face of huge odds by refusing to give up and by continuing regardless towards their goals.
Here are some facts about a well-known man who used perseverance to overcome the odds and finally achieve his goals!
Beginning at age 31 up until age 60, this man failed in business twice, was defeated in legislative races twice, survived the death of a loved one, suffered a nervous breakdown, lost three congressional races, lost two senatorial races, one vice presidential race and was finally elected President of the United States at age the age of 60.
This man was Abraham Lincoln – and his fighting spirit epitomises the word perseverance!
Another example closer to home is writer Joanna Rowling, author of the Harry Potter books, who persevered against the odds. She wrote her first book when she was a penniless single parent with a small daughter, living on benefit. She wrote her book by hand, sitting day after day over a coffee in a café while her daughter slept in her pushchair next to her. When she finally finished her book, after many months, she sent it off to an agent who rejected it as being too long for children. Joanna’s reaction was not to change her book; she simply sent it off to other agents until she found one who loved it. The rest as they say is history and Joanna is now one of the richest and most successful women in the UK.

Ways to practice…

Practice your perseverance skills by the methods above, or some of your own, for a set period of time. Make some notes as you go along to remind yourself when you have persevered, especially when others have given up, regardless of whether you think the outcome was positive or negative. At the end of this time, write up your experiences in the STAR format (Situation, Task, Action, Result).

Skill Five: Perseverance

Situation
Describe the situation you were in. What was the specific event or set of circumstances in which you found yourself?

 

Task
Describe the task you needed or wanted to accomplish. What was your strategic goal or mission, what did you want to achieve?

 

Action
Describe the action(s) you took and keep the focus on you and your contribution even if it was a team activity.

 

Result
What happened? What were the outcomes – positive and negative? What did you learn?

 

Skill Six:  Networking

Skill Six:  Networking

A supportive system.

Informal interaction.
Increased access to opportunities

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Networking…

Networking is an essential skill for employment and self employment. Networking is the process of building contacts and support networks to assist you at all stages in your career.

Ways to practice….

Whenever you get the opportunity practice your networking skills for a set period of time. Make some notes as you go along to remind yourself when you have tried to network with someone regardless of whether you think the outcome was positive or negative. At the end of this time, write up your experiences in the STAR format (Situation, Task, Action, Result).

Skill six: Networking

Some examples..

 

In self employment

Tom Savage, creator of Blue Ventures and Bright Green, is a social entrepreneur who after leaving university worked as an innovator of ethical entrepreneurial ideas supporting community based conservation. He feels that using established on line networks such as MySpace and Facebook is a crucial part of becoming and being an entrepreneur. For more information about Tom go to:
www. starttalkingideas.org/news_and_features/ambassadors/young_entrepreneurs/tom_savage

 

In job hunting

I spent a month doing work experience at several different broadcasting companies, and whilst at the BBC I was offered some freelance work answering the telephone. I also offered to spend one day a week working voluntarily as a Researcher and then after a few months began to be offered paid work as a Researcher. Everyone told me and its true- work experience is key. It will help you build up a list of contacts that can give you advice, let you know of job opportunities or even recommend you for a job.”

2006 Graduate of Bristol University. Source: Careers Service, University of Bristol

Simon has recently completed a postgraduate course in Film and Television. He attended a one day job hunting course run by the Careers Service. During the course students talked to each other about their aims and objectives and what they were hoping to achieve. Simon was sitting next to an American postgraduate student who had just completed an MA in Business Administration. The American student was from Los Angeles and had worked for two film studios before coming to England. He had numerous contacts in the industry and during his time there had worked in casting and HR departments. He had seen hundreds of CVs from hopeful applicants. At the end of the job hunting course he suggested they both went out for a drink so he could talk about his experiences and share ideas about CV preparation for the film industry. Simon has now added another useful name to his network of contacts. 

Source: AGCAS


Skill: Networking

Situation
Describe the situation you were in. What was the specific event or set of circumstances in which you found yourself?

 

Task
Describe the task you needed or wanted to accomplish. What was your strategic goal or mission, what did you want to achieve?

 

Action
Describe the action(s) you took and keep the focus on you and your contribution even if it was a team activity.

 

Result
What happened? What were the outcomes – positive and negative? What did you learn?

 

Skill Seven: Judgement

Skill Seven: Judgement

Using judgement to take calculated risks.

Intuitive decision making under uncertainty.

How do you make decisions?

It is important to understand and be able to reflect on your approach to making decisions. Are you very intuitive or impulsive or do you agonise over the options and alternatives? Maybe you take a different approach depending on what the decision is and what impact the outcome of the decision will have on you and others around you.

Entrepreneurs are often cited as being very intuitive and able to make decisions with no fear of the risk involved. Often this is far from the truth and it is the “calculation” of that risk that determines the decision.

Analyse your own style

Take two or three different types of decisions you have made over the last few months and answer the following questions.

Example Decision: To come and study at Surrey

Why did you make that decision?

 

 

How did you make that decision?

 

 

 

What processes did you go through to make that decision?

 

 

 

Who did you talk to?

 

 

 

Where did you get the information needed?

 

 

How did it feel?

 

 

 

At the end of this time, write up your experiences in the STAR format (Situation, Task, Action, Result).

Refer to Futures Workbook  – Decision Making and Problem Solving for more help, activities and exercises to support you in this skill development

Skill: Judgement

Situation
Describe the situation you were in. What was the specific event or set of circumstances in which you found yourself?

 

Task
Describe the task you needed or wanted to accomplish. What was your strategic goal or mission, what did you want to achieve?

 

Action
Describe the action(s) you took and keep the focus on you and your contribution even if it was a team activity.

 

Result
What happened? What were the outcomes – positive and negative? What did you learn?

 

Skill Eight: Selling

Skill Eight: Selling

Persuading

Negotiating

Proposing.

    

Sales…

Ways to practice…

                   
Two most important rules for negotiating…
Rule # 1

Rule # 2

Ways to practice…

An Example from a Surrey student…

Situation

After being fed up of being skint I wanted to make some money and quick. I also wanted to try my hand at entrepreneurship and to see if I could do what Sir Alan Sugar did – which was to double my money in a matter of days.

Task

To achieve this goal, I needed to track down a product which was (a) accessible, (b) cheap to purchase and (c) something of value to students. After 20 minutes of Google searching, the penny dropped and Flash USB memory sticks became the obvious answer.

Action

Now that I had my product, all I needed to do was understand and eliminate my competition. Co-incidentally the university was also selling USB memory sticks and for the prices they were charging, this may as well have been day light robbery. On this basis, given that I had done well to negotiate a good unit price for the sticks, I was able to undercut the university and in return make a healthy profit.

Result

Although, I did not double my money in a matter of a day, I did come close to achieving this in a matter of weeks. This goes to show that entrepreneurship isn’t just all about business forecasting and extensive market research, but is actually having the courage to take that initial risk. If I did lose my initial investment, yes, it would have been a shame but whilst going through this process I picked up sales, negotiation and planning skills. These are skills of which that make up a successful entrepreneur.

 

Whenever you get the opportunity, practice selling & negotiating for a set period of time. Make some notes as you go along to remind yourself when you have tried to sell someone something, or negotiated, regardless of whether you think the outcome was positive or negative. At the end of this time, write up your experiences in the STAR format (Situation, Task, Action, Result).


Skill Eight: Selling

Situation
Describe the situation you were in. What was the specific event or set of circumstances in which you found yourself?

 

Task
Describe the task you needed or wanted to accomplish. What was your strategic goal or mission, what did you want to achieve?

 

Action
Describe the action(s) you took and keep the focus on you and your contribution even if it was a team activity.

 

Result
What happened? What were the outcomes – positive and negative? What did you learn?

 

Developing Your Action Plan

Where are you now? What are your attributes, skills, experiences, values in relation to enterprise?

Go back over the eight skill areas and identify the main skills where you feel confident and competent at. Summarise  these in the spaces below:

 

 

I feel confident and competent in these enterprise skills

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Where would you like to be in the future?  Now think about the enterprise skills that you feel need some improvement. Summarise these in the space below and say how you will go about doing this.

 

I would like to improve these enterprise skills

Skill

How I intend to do this

By when?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Now you have made some steps to improving your “enterprise capability” you may want to think about the bigger picture.

Create an action plan to achieve both your long and short term goals;

 

My long term vision is….

 

 

 

The steps I need to take to achieve this vision are:

Action

By When?

Who will support me in this?

How will I know I’ve succeeded?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Resources and further information

Association of Graduate Careers Advisory Services (AGCAS)

Mind Mapping

National Council for Graduate Entrepreneurship

Prospects       

Surrey University Careers Service    

The Windmills Programme            

Paper copies of this and other "Futures workbooks 1-6" can be obtained from Leeds Metropolitan University       www.leedsmet.ac.uk/metoffice/employability/resources

      

                              

                  

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There are several topics in the Series of Futures workbooks looking at self-assessment, job selection methods and effective communication with employers. They are available to download from

 

Radial Diagram 

 

 

 

 

Produced by Debbie Adams, Laura Dean and Ted Sarmiento, Leeds Metrolpolitan University

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